Factors Influencing the Persistence of Salmonella Infantis in Broiler Litter During Composting and Stabilization Processes and Following Soil Incorporation
. FRONTIERS IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS 2021
Broiler litter (BL), a by-product of broiler meat production, is frequently contaminated with Salmonella and other zoonotic pathogens. To ensure the safety of crop production chains and limit pathogen spread in the environment, a pre-treatment is desired before further agricultural utilization. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of physico-chemical properties on Salmonella persistence in BL during composting and stabilization and following soil incorporation, toward optimization of the inactivation process. Thirty-six combinations of temperature (30, 40, 50, and 60 degrees C), water content (40, 55, and 70%; w/w), and initial pH (6, 7, and 8.5) were employed in static lab vessels to study the persistence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis; a multidrug-resistant strain) during incubation of artificially-inoculated BL. The effect of aeration was investigated in a composting simulator, with controlled heating and flow conditions. Temperature was found to be the main factor significantly influencing Salmonella decay rates, while water content and initial pH had a secondary level of influence with significant effects mainly at 30 and 40 degrees C. Controlled simulations showed faster decay of Salmonella under anaerobic conditions at mesophilic temperatures (<45 degrees C) and no effect of NH3 emissions. Re-wetting the BL at mesophilic temperatures resulted in Salmonella burst, and led to a higher tolerance of the pathogen at increased temperatures. Based on the decay rates measured under all temperature, water content, and pH conditions, it was estimated that the time required to achieve a 7 log(10) reduction in Salmonella concentration, ranges between 13.7-27.2, 6.5-15.6, 1.2-4.7, and 1.3-1.5 days for 30, 40, 50, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Inactivation of BL indigenous microbial population by autoclaving or addition of antibiotics to which the S. Infantis is resistant, resulted in augmentation of Salmonella multiplication. This suggests the presence of microbial antagonists in the BL, which inhibit the growth of the pathogen. Finally, Salmonella persisted over 90 days at 30 degrees C in a Vertisol soil amended with inoculated BL, presumably due to reduced antagonistic activity compared to the BL alone. These findings are valuable for risk assessments and the formulation of guidelines for safe utilization of BL in agriculture.
Physical and chemical indicators of transformations of poultry carcass parts and broiler litter during short term thermophilic composting
. WASTE MANAGEMENT 2021
Short-term on-site composting of poultry carcasses and broiler litter (BL) is considered as a feasible technology for pathogen elimination during events of mass mortality in poultry houses. However, factors related to mass losses and physical transformation of the poultry carcass, and associated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors, have not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aims to characterize the degradation of separated carcass parts co-composted with BL and the associated air emissions during 30 days of enclosed composting at 50 degrees C with constant aeration. The study was carried out in lab-scale simulators using five mixtures containing feathers, rib bones, skins, breast muscles, and hearts and livers, prepared at a 1:2 volumetric ratio (carcass:BL). Dry mass losses reached 59.5, 41.1, 60.8 and 103.5% (based on weight) or 48.4, 29.6, 49.7, and 94.8% (based on CO2-C and NH3-N emissions), for rib bones, skins, breast muscles, and hearts and livers, respectively. Visually, most of the carcass parts were degraded, and the typical carcass odor had disappeared by the end of the 30 days. Out of 24 VOCs, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) contributed 80.7-88.3% of the total VOC flux, considering the partial contribution of each part to the emissions involved with the whole carcass. DMDS, DMTS, benzaldehyde, methanethiol, pentanoic acid, and NH3, contributed 90.5-97.9% of the odor activity values during composting. DMDS/DMTS ratio is suggested as a potential biomarker of stabilization and readiness of the compost for transportation toward further treatment or safe burial. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.